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Catalan Countries
Països Catalans

Name of the stateless nation: Països Catalans

State or states this nation belongs to: Kingdom of Spain, French Republic, Principality of Andorra

Catalunya map

1. Physical and human environment


Area   68,857 km2, made up of the following territories: Catalonia: 32,108 km2; Valencian Country: 23,255 km2; Balearic Islands: 4,985 km2; Northern Catalonia: 4,116 km2; Franja: 3.925 km2, and Andorra: 468 km2

Altimetric zones (% of total surface)
Only Catalonia
Lower than 200 m   21.08%
201-600 m  39.11%
601-1,000 m  20.09%
1,001-2,000 m  15.54%
Higher than 2,000 m  4.17%

Biogeographical regions (% of total surface)
Mediterranean  88%
Boreal-alpine  12%

Mediterranean  80%
Boreal-alpine  12%

Valencian Country, Balearic Islands:
Mediterranean  100%

Northern Catalonia:
Mediterranean  70%
Boreal-alpine  30%

Boreal-alpine  100%

Land use (% of total surface) Only Catalonia
Inland waters and wetlands -
Forests and open spaces 67.32%
Agricultural land 26.37%
Urban and artificial areas 6.27%




The lands that currently make up the Catalan Countries (Catalonia, the Valencian Country, the Balearic Islands, Northern Catalonia, Franja and Andorra -sometimes Sardinia's Alghero and Murcia's El Carche are also included) trace their birth back to the Middle Ages. A group of counties originally controlled by the Franks (8th-9th centuries) increasingly gained independence and were united under the rule of the counts of Barcelona (10th-11th centuries). Catalonia got its approximate final borders after the counts of Barcelona completed the conquest of the whole of Catalonia in mid-12th century from its Muslim rulers.

Count of Barcelona and King of Aragon James I expanded his rule over the Balearic Islands and the Valencian Country in the first half of the 13th century. After having conquered the islands and most of the Valencian lands, he established the kingdoms of Valencia and Majorca as constituent units of the Crown of Aragon, altogether with the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Aragon and several minor territories.

The Principality of Catalonia and the kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca continued to exist as separate legal and political entities until the Spanish War on Succession (1707-1714). The Nueva Planta decrees (1707-1716) issued by Spanish king Philip V abolished any self-government of those four lands and established a centralized state.

In the 19th century cultural, linguistic and political movement emerged in Catalonia, which came to be known as “Catalanism”. Its proponents demanded the recovery of the institutions and language of Catalonia and some degree of self-government from Spain. Similar demands were raised in the Valencian Country and the Balearic Islands starting from early 20th century.

Although the cultural and linguistic unity of the Catalan Countries is generally accepted by both academics and the main political parties and associations (thus constituting a “cultural nation”, according to the concept put forward by Valencian social scientist Joan Francesc Mira), there is an ongoing debate on whether they also constitute (or should constitute) a single political nation. Proponents of the latter (usually pro-independence sections) argue that a common language, culture and history make the Catalan Countries one single nation, and thus advocate for the establishment of a common political unit. The Valencian writer Joan Fuster was a central figure in the proposal for the understanding of the Catalan Countries as one nation.


2 Government

Capital city
Barcelona (Catalonia), Valencia (Valencian Country), Palma (Balearic Islands), Perpinyà (Northern Catalonia), Andorra la Vella (Andorra).

Name of President / Prime Minister / Other
Carles Puigdemont i Casamajó (Catalonia, president), Joaquín Francisco Puig Ferrer (Valencian Country, president), Francesca Lluc Armengol Socías (Balearic Islands, president), Carole Delga (Northern Catalonia, president), Antoni Martí (Andorra, prime minister)

Political status as part of the State
Autonomous communities within the Kingdom of Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Country and Balearic Islands), department of the French Republic (Northern Catalonia), independent state (Andorra).

Competences attributed / recognized by the State
A brief note on the system of power sharing in Spain (for practical purposes, “Generalitat” can be understood here as “any autonomous government”):
“The powers of the Generalitat are exclusive, concurrent and shared. When it comes to exclusive responsibility [...] the regional government has both executive and legislative powers. The concurrent powers consist of those areas of competence in which both the state and the region have jurisdiction. Usually, the central government establishes the basis for legislation and the Generalitat assumes the further legislative development and execution. Regarding the shared powers, the region can assume only the execution of state legislation.” PPS

Exclusive powers of Catalonia:
agriculture and livestock farming; water pertaining to intra-community basins, legal system of the associations and foundations that carry out their functions mainly in Catalonia; hunting and river fishing; regulation of the organisation of savings banks whose headquarters are in Catalonia; trade and trade fairs; popular consultations; consumer affairs; cooperatives; public law corporations; mutual pension societies not included in the social security system; culture; denominations of origin; civil law; education (partially); civil protection; sport; statistics; public employment of the Catalan administration; housing; initial reception and integration of immigrants; industry (partially); transport infrastructures not legally classified as being of general interest; gaming; youth; Catalan and Aranese languages; natural areas; public broadcasting services of the Generalitat; public works not classified as being of general interest or that do not affect another autonomous community; territorial and landscape planning; territorial organisation; gender policies; promotion of market competition; regulation of advertising; own research centres and structures; legal system and legal procedure governing Catalan Public Administration bodies (partially); local government system (partially); religious entities; health (partially); social services; symbols of Catalonia; land transport of passengers and goods; tourism.

Shared powers of Catalonia:
Financial activities; education (partially); energy and mining; industry (partially); environment; stock exchanges; media; organisation of economic activity; legal system and legal procedure governing Catalan Public Administration bodies (partially); local government system (partially);  health (partially); social security. SAoC


Exclusive powers of the Valencian Country:
1. Organisation of its own institutions of self-government, within the framework of this Statute.
2. Conservation, development and modification of Valencian Civil Law.
3. Procedural norms and those of administrative procedure derived from the singularities of Valencian substantive law or the specialities of the organisation of the Generalitat.
4. Culture.
5. Historical, artistic, monumental, architectural, archaeological and scientific heritage, respecting the provisions in number 28 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
6. Archives, libraries, museums, newspaper libraries and other centres of storage that are not in State ownership. Music and dance conservatories, centres for drama and fine art services that are of interest to the Valencian Community.
7. Research, academies whose principle area of activity is the Valencian Community. Promotion and development of the I+D+I (Plan for Scientific Investigation, Development and Technological Innovation), within the framework of its scientific and technological policy and respecting the provisions of number 15 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
8. Systems of local government, respecting the provisions of number 18 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution. Alterations to municipalities and toponyms.
9. Management of the territory and coastline, urban development and housing.
10. Woods, forestry services and exploitations, drove roads and pasture, protected natural spaces and special treatment of mountain areas, in accordance with the provisions of number 23 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
11. Hygiene.
12. Tourism.
13. Public works that do not hold the legal status of general interest of the State or whose implementation does not affect another autonomous community.
14. Roads and paths whose trajectory lies entirely within the territory of the Valencian Community.
15. Railways, land, sea, river and cable transport; ports, airports, heliports and the meteorological service of the Valencian Community, respecting the provisions of numbers 20 and 21 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution. Contracting centres and loading terminals in matters of transport.
16. Exploitation of water resources, canals and irrigation channels, when the water carried therein flows wholly within the territory of the Valencian Community; installations for the production, distribution and transport of energy, whenever this transport does not leave the territory and whose exploitation does not affect another autonomous community; underground, thermal and mineral waters. All of this respecting the provisions in number 25 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
17. Fishing in continental waters, shellfish and fish farming, river and lake fishing and hunting.
Fishing associations.
18. Craftsmanship.
19. Pharmaceutical management, respecting the provisions of number 16 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
20. Establishment and management of contracting centres and stock exchanges, in agreement with commercial legislation.
21. Cooperatives, corporations of persons with activities related to the sea and mutualisms not integrated into the Social Security system, fully respecting commercial legislation.
22. Professional associations and the exercise of certified professions, respecting the provisions of articles 36 and 139 of the Spanish Constitution.
23. Foundations and associations of an educational, cultural, artistic, charitable and caring, voluntary social service and similar nature, whose principle area of activity is the Valencian Community.
24. Social Services.
25. Youth.
26. Promotion of women.
27. Public institutions to help and protect minors, the young, emigrants, the elderly, the disabled and other groups or sectors needing special protection, including the creation of centres of protection, reintegration and rehabilitation.
28. Sports and leisure.
29. Publicity, respecting the regulations issued by the State for specific sectors and media.
30. Shows.
31. Casinos, betting and gaming, with the exception of mutual sports-charity bets.
32. Statistics of interest to the Generalitat.
33. Associations of property owners, chambers of commerce, industry and navigation, farmers’ unions, respecting the provisions of number 10 of paragraph one of article 149 of the Spanish Constitution.
34. Institutions for cooperative, public and territorial credit, and savings banks, in accordance with the provisions of basic State legislation.
35. Interior trade, defence of consumers and users, respecting general policies on pricing, the free movement of goods, legislation defending competition and State legislation.
36. Administration of justice, respecting the provisions in the legislation developing article 149.1.5 of the Constitution.
2. The Generalitat holds exclusive power over those other matters that this Statute expressly attributes to it as exclusive and those which, with this nature and by means of organic law, are transferred to it by the State.
3. The Generalitat also holds exclusive power, respecting the provisions of article 149 of the Constitution and, if necessary, the rules and management of the general economic activity of the State, over the following areas:
1. Defence against fraud and agro-alimentary quality and security.
2. Agrarian Transformation Societies.
Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community
3. Agriculture, reform and agrarian development, and livestock.
4. Agrarian health.
5. Duties and services of Social Security in matters of the medical assistance of the Social Marine Institute.
6. Teaching of nautical and sub-aquatic sports.
7. Professional teaching of sea-fishing.
8. Management of the duties of the State Employment Service in matters of work, employment and training.
9. Matters in the education, social services, employment and professional training of workers at sea, entrusted to the Social Marine Institute.
10. Insurance brokers.
11. Second and third-category radioactive installations.
12. Architectural heritage, building and housing quality control.
13. Professional diving.
14. Civil protection and public safety.
15. Denominations of origin and other marks of quality, which includes the legal system of their creation and management; the recognition of denominations or indicators, as well as the passing of their foundational regulations and all of the administrative faculties of management and control over the usage of said denominations and indicators.
16. The system of new technologies related to the information and knowledge-based society.
4. The development and execution of European Union legislation in the Valencian Community is also the exclusive power of the Generalitat, in those matter which may be in its power. “

Powers reserved by the State
“The State shall have exclusive competence over the following matters:
1.ª Regulation of basic conditions guaranteeing the equality of all Spaniards in the exercise of their rights and in the fulfilment of their constitutional duties.
2.ª Nationality, immigration, emigration, status of aliens, and right of asylum.
3.ª International relations.
4.ª Defence and the Armed Forces.
5.ª Administration of Justice.
6.ª Commercial, criminal and penitentiary legislation; procedural legislation, without prejudice to the necessary specialities in these fields arising from the peculiar features of the substantive law of the Self-governing Communities.
7.ª Labour legislation, without prejudice to its execution by bodies of the Self-governing Communities.
8.ª Civil legislation, without prejudice to the preservation, modification and development by the Self-governing Communities of their civil law, foral or special, whenever these exist, and traditional charts. In any event rules for the application and effectiveness of legal provisions, civil relations arising from the forms of marriage, keeping of records and drawing up to public instruments, bases of contractual liability, rules for resolving conflicts of law and determination of the sources of law in conformity, in this last case, with the rules of traditional charts or with those of foral or special laws.
9.ª Legislation on copyright and industrial property.
10.ª Customs and tariff regulations; foreign trade.
11.ª Monetary system: foreign currency, exchange and convertibility; bases for the regulations concerning credit, banking and insurance.
12.ª Legislation on weights and measures and determination of the official time.
13.ª Basic rules and coordination of general economic planning.
14.ª General financial affairs and State Debt.
15.ª Promotion and general coordination of scientific and technical research.
16.ª External health measures; basic conditions and general coordination of health matters; legislation on pharmaceutical products.
17.ª Basic legislation and financial system of Social Security, without prejudice to implementation of its services by the Self-governing Communities.
18.ª Basic rules of the legal system of Public Administrations and the status of their officials which shall, in any case, guarantee that all persons under said administrations will receive equal treatment; the common administrative procedure, without prejudice to the special features of the Self-governing Communities' own organizations; legislation on compulsory expropriation; basic legislation on contracts and administrative concessions and the system of liability of all Public Administrations.
19.ª Sea fishing, without prejudice to the powers which, in regulations governing this sector, may be vested to the Self-governing Communities.
20.ª Merchant navy and registering of ships; lighting of coasts and signals at sea; general-interest ports; general-interest airports; control of the air space, air traffic and transport; meteorological services and aircraft registration.
21.ª Railways and land transport crossing through the territory of more than one Self-governing Community; general system of communications; motor vehicle traffic; Post Office services and telecommunications; air and underwater cables and radiocommunications.
22.ª Legislation, regulation and concession of hydraulic resources and development where the water-streams flow through more than one Self-governing Community, and authorization for hydro-electrical power plants whenever their operation affects other Communities or the lines of energy transportation are extended over other Communities.
23.ª Basic legislation on environmental protection, without prejudice to powers of the Self-governing Communities to take additional protective measures; basic legislation on woodlands, forestry and cattle trails.
24.ª Public works of general benefit or whose execution affects more than one Self-governing Community.
25.ª Basic regulation of mining and energy.
26.ª Manufacturing, sale, possession and use of arms and explosives.
27.ª Basic rules relating to organization of the press, radio and television and, in general, all mass-communications media without prejudice to powers vested in the Self-governing Communities for their development and implementation.
28.ª Protection of Spain's cultural and artistic heritage and national monuments against exportation and spoliation; museums, libraries, and archives belonging to the State, without prejudice to their management by the Self-governing Communities.
29.ª Public safety, without prejudice to the possibility of creation of police forces by the Self-governing Communities, in the manner to be provided for in their respective Statutes of Autonomy and within the framework to be laid down by an organic act.
30.ª Regulation of the requirements for obtention, issue and standardization of academic degrees and professional qualifications and basic rules for implementation of section 27 of the Constitution, in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the duties of public authorities in this matter.
31.ª Statistics for State purposes.
32.ª Authorization of popular consultations through the holding of referendums.”


Political institutions
Catalonia: Generalitat de Catalunya, a self-government institution including the Parlament de Catalunya (unicameral parliament, 135 members, with legislative capacity) and the Govern de Catalunya (Catalan government); High Court of Justice of Catalonia.

Valencian Country: Generalitat Valenciana, including the Corts Valencianes (unicameral parliament, 99 members, with legislative capacity) and the Consell (executive council); High Court of Justice of the Valencian Community

Balearic Islands: Parlament de les Illes Balears (Parliament of the Balearic Islands; unicameral, 60 members, with legislative capacity); Govern de les Illes Balears (government of the Balearic Islands); High Court of Justice of the Balearic Islands. Besides these all-Balearic institutions, each one of the four islands has its own institutions of self-government: the insular councils of Mallorca, Menorca, Eivissa and Formentera.

Northern Catalonia: General Council of the Eastern Pyrenees (assembly with limited powers; no legislative capacity).
Andorra: Andorran institutions have all the powers usually held by any independent country. They include the Consell General d'Andorra (General Council of Andorra, unicameral legislature with 28 members); the Govern d'Andorra (executive body); and the Consell Superior de Justícia (Higher Council of Justice; highest body of the Andorran judicial system).

External representation
Catalonia, the Valencian Country and the Balearic Islands are members of the Committee of Regions of the European Union, as a part of the Spanish delegation.
Catalonia and the Balearic Islands maintain the Institute Ramon Llull (IRL), whose mission is to promote Catalan language and culture internationally. It has offices in France, the UK, Germany and the USA. The IRL is one of the members of the Foundation Ramon Llull, also made up of Andorra, Northern Catalonia, the city of L'Alguer (Sardinia) and the Network of Valencian Cities.

Catalonia holds 5 foreign delegations in France, the UK, Germany, the EU (in Brussels) and the USA and 34 commercial delegations in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania.

The Valencian Country holds 21 commercial delegations in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia.

The Balearic Islands hold a delegation in the EU (Brussels).

Catalonia and the Balearic Islands are members of the Pyrenees-Mediterranean Euroregion, together with Midi-Pyrénées, Languedoc-Roussillon and Aragon.

Andorra and Catalonia are members of the Working Community of the Pyrenees, together with Euskadi, Navarre, Aragon, Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon.

The Balearic Islands are members of the Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions of Europe.

Also, being a sovereign state, Andorra is member of a number of international institutions, among which the United Nations (including UNESCO), the Council of Europe, OSCE, Francophonie, Latin Union and INTERPOL.


Territorial and local organization (counties, provinces, districts, municipal bodies, etc.)
Catalonia is divided into 41 comarques (traditional region, somewhat similar to counties) and 947 municipalities. One of those comarques, Aran Valley, is partially self-governing. According to Catalan laws, Catalonia should be divided into seven vegueries (regions), which would be the top administrative division of Catalonia and would supersede the four current provinces. Spanish laws, however, do not allow for the existence of vegueries, but rather of provinces.
The Valencian Country is divided into three provinces, 34 comarques and 542 municipalities.
The Balearic Islands are divided into four partially autonomous islands (see nº 25) and 67 municipalities.
Northern Catalonia is divided into 3 arrondissements and 226 municipalities.
Andorra is divided into seven parròquies (somewhat similar to municipalities).

Main Political Parties
Political parties having (or having had in the past) representatives at the national level

Convergència i Unió (CiU). Liberalism and Christian Democracy, sovereignist
Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya (PSC). Social democracy, federalist
Partit Popular (PP) Conservatism, unionist
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC). Social democracy, pro-independence in the framework of the Catalan Countries
Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds (ICV). Left Green politics, federalist and sovereignist
Ciutadans (C's). Social democracy and Liberalism, unionist
Candidatura d'Unitat Popular (CUP). Socialism, pro-independence
Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència (SI). Social democracy, pro-independence

Valencian Country
Partit Popular (PP). Conservatism, unionist
Partit Socialista del País Valencià (PSPV). Social democracy, unionist
Coalició Compromís (CC). Social democracy and Left Green politics, federalist and sovereignist
Esquerra Unida del País Valencià (EUPV). Socialism. Federalist

Balearic Islands
Partit Popular (PP). Conservatism, unionist
Partit Socialista de les Illes Balears (PSIB). Social democracy, unionist
Partit Socialista de Mallorca-Entesa Nacionalista (PSM-EN). Socialism, sovereignist in the framework of the Catalan Countries
Esquerra Unida de les Illes Balears (EUIB). Socialism, federalist
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC). Social democracy, pro-independence in the framework of the Catalan Countries
Gent per Formentera (GxF). Social democracy, sovereignist in the framework of the Catalan Countries

Demòcrates per Andorra (DA). Liberalism
Partit Socialdemòcrata (PS). Social democracy


Nationwide political parties having (or having had in the past) representatives at the local level

Reagrupament (Rcat). Republicanism, pro-independence
Partit Republicà d'Esquerra (PRE). Left republicanism, federalist
Plataforma per Catalunya (PxC). Conservatism and anti-immigration, unionist

Valencian Country
Esquerra Republicana del País Valencià (ERPV). Social democracy, pro-independence in the framework of the Catalan Countries
Unión, Progreso y Democracia (UPyD). Conservatism, unionist.
Units per València (UxV). Centrism, sovereignist in the framework of the Valencian Country alone (opposed to the idea of Catalan Countries)
Partido Socialdemócrata (PSD). Social democracy, unionism.

Balearic Islands
Convergència per les Illes (CxI). Liberalism, autonomist
Lliga Regionalista. Liberalism, regionalist and autonomist

Northern Catalonia
Unitat Catalana (UC). Social democracy, autonomist
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC). Social democracy, pro-independence in the framework of the Catalan Countries
Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya (CDC). Liberalism, autonomist

Verds d'Andorra (VA). Left green politics.

Convergència Democràtica de la Franja (CDF). Liberalism, pro-Catalan culture and language


Nationalist organizations of civil society
Òmnium Cultural (OC)
(1961) One of the main associations working for Catalan language, culture and national identity. It has offices in Catalonia, Northern Catalonia and L'Alguer. Their partners in the Valencian Country and the Balearic Islands are Acció Cultural del País Valencià and Obra Cultural Balear, with whom they established the Federació Ramon Llull in 1990.

Acció Cultural del País Valencià (ACPV)
(1978) Association working for the Catalan language and culture in the Valencian Country and for its national identity in the framework of the Catalan Countries.

Obra Cultural Balear (OCB)
(1962) Main association for Catalan language and culture in the Balearic Islands. It also works for the right of the Balearic Islands to self-government in the framework of the Catalan Countries.

Centre Internacional Escarré per a les Minories Ètniques I les Nacions (CIEMEN)
(1974) Organization that advocates for the rights of stateless nations and defenseless minorities. It also works for the right to self-determination for the whole Catalan Countries.

Assemblea Nacional Catalana (ANC)
(2012) Association working for the independence of Catalonia (first step) and of the whole of the Catalan Countries (in a later stage). It organized the largest demonstration ever in the history of Catalonia, when 1.5 million people called for Catalan independence in Barcelona in 2012.



3. Population

(Only Catalonia)
Total population 7,565,603

Density  1235.6 inh/km2

Age structure
0-19  20.45%
20-39  29.32%
40-59  27.94%
60-79  17.07%
80 and over 5.22%

Urban population
approx. 95% urban (settlements of over 2,000 people)
approx 5% rural (settlements of less than 2,000 people)

In the capital city 21.35%
In other major cities:
L'Hospitalet de Llobregat 3.38%
Badalona  2.90%
Terrassa 2.82%
Sabadell 2.74%

Annual growth  4.7‰

Net migration rate  -4.8‰

Life expectancy
Men: 79.2 years
Women: 85.2 years

4. Languages

Spoken languages

Language areas (whether vernacular or not)
Catalan and Spanish: speakers to be found across Catalonia,  Balearic Islands, Valencian Country, Northern Catalonia, Franja and Andorra.
Occitan: spoken in the Aran Valley (where it is known as Aranese), in north-western Catalonia, and in the Fenolheda, in north-western North Catalonia.
French: speakers to be found across Northern Catalonia and Andorra.

Number and percentage of speakers of each vernacular language over the total population
Catalan: 5,703,000 people in 2010 (76.71 % of the total population of Catalonia)
Occitan: 4,700 estimated in 2008 (56.82 % of the total population of the Aran Valley)

Official languages and languages recognized by the authorities
in the territory of the nation

Catalan: official language in Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands, Andorra; officially recognized in Franja and Northern Catalonia
Occitan: official language in Catalonia; officially recognized in Northern Catalonia
Spanish: official language in Catalonia,  Valencian Country, Balearic Islands, Franja
Catalan Sign Language: legally recognized in Spain
vernacular languages of the nation which are official in or recognized by the state
Catalan, Occitan (both officially albeit indirectly recognized by the Spanish State in the Spanish Constitution and under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages).
Catalan Sign Language (legally recognized by the State in the Catalan area)
national vernacular languages official or recognized outside the state (by other states and/or by international organizations)
Catalan (legally recognized within the state’s territory of Italy; legally recognized as language of communication with citizens by the European Union).
Occitan (legally recognized within the state’s territory of Italy; legally recognized by several regions in France).

Use of vernacular languages in public administration
Catalan is the language of normal and preferential use in Public Administration bodies. However, citizens have the right to choose the language (Catalan or Spanish) they wish to use in their dealings with the institutions, organisations and public administrations.
Occitan (Aranese) is the language of preferential use in all institutions of the territory, and the language used normally for the Catalan administration in matters related to Aran.
In Aran each individual has the right to know and use Aranese and to be attended orally and in writing in Aranese in his or her dealings with the Public Administration bodies and public and private entities accountable to them. The citizens of Aran have also the right to use Aranese in their dealings with the Generalitat.

In justice
Catalan: “Each individual has the right to use the official language of his or her choice in any judicial, notarial or registration procedures and to receive all official documentation issued in Catalonia in the language requested”.
The same can be said about Occitan

In school
Catalan: According to the Law on Education (2009) Catalan is the language of normal use for teaching and learning in the education system. This implies that the educative activities, the didactic materials and textbooks... must be normally in Catalan. The Law recalls that pupils cannot be separated in different centres or group classes because of their usual language.
In spite of that rule, infants have the right to receive early education in their usual language, whether Catalan or Spanish. In the school year when pupils begin their initial education, mothers, fathers or guardians of pupils whose usual language is Spanish may request, at the moment of enrolment, for their children to receive individual linguistic attention in this language.
Occitan: According to the Law on Education (2009) Occitan, named Aranese in Aran, is the language of normal use for teaching and learning in the education system. The linguistic projects of the schools should ensure, also, an appropriate presence of Catalan.

In place names (toponymy)
All place names in Catalonia have their own versions in Catalan. The Catalan version is the only official one for the toponyms of Catalonia, except those of the Aran Valley whose official form is the Occitan one (Aranese).

In cultural production (books, movies)
7,804 books in Catalan (2011)
149 movies, out of which: original in Catalan 53; dubbed in Catalan 68; subtitled in Catalan 28 (2010)
11 books were published in Occitan in the Catalan Countries in 2009.

In the media and the internet
Catalan: Catalan is the language normally used in the public media (radio and TV). Daily newspapers represented 27.3% of the total. Magazines (weekly and biweekly) 64.5% (data 2010)  
Radio stations broadcasting in Catalan have 55.7% of the audience. The use of Catalan predominates in local stations. (2010)
Catalan on the Internet has expanded rapidly including scores of personal web pages and ‘blogs’ in Catalan. In January 2011 there were 46,575 domains “.cat” registered (a 17.4% increase over the previous year). In March 2011, the Catalan language was the thirteenth ranking language by number of entries in Wikipedia. 

Occitan has some presence in the oral media (TV and radio). Since 2009, a daily programme (Monday to Friday) on general news has been broadcast to all of Catalonia. TV in Occitan has its own space in the public TV on Internet, on
Since 2010, there has been a web TV channel in Occitan ( that, at the beginning of 2012, started broadcasting also using TDT.
There are also two daily programmes in Occitan on public radio stations (general news and a magazine) broadcasted only in Aran.
There are five local newspapers in Occitan in Aran. One of them is a supplement of a Catalan newspaper and the others are free newspapers published monthly, in Occitan or bilingual (Occitan-Catalan/Spanish)

Speakers of other languages
There are almost 300 languages spoken in Catalonia, and they represent about 8% of the population (2010). The most widely spoken are Arabic, Berber, Rumanian, Quechua, Italian, Mandarin, French, Urdu, Punjabi, Portuguese, German, English, Fula, Wolof, Hindi, Soninke and Ukrainian.

5. Transport infrastructure

Ten airports operate international flights as of 2012 in the Catalan Countries: Barcelona-El Prat, Lleida-Alguaire, Girona-Costa Brava and Reus (Catalonia), València, Alacant (Valencian Country), Palma, Eivissa, Menorca (Balearic Islands) and Perpinyà (Northern Catalonia)

Catalonia: 12,044 km; Valencian Country: 8,400 km; Balearic Islands: 2,157 km (including dual ways and toll ways); Andorra: 269 km; Northern Catalonia: 5,909 km

Dual carriageways
Catalonia: 1,381 km; Valencian Country 1,456 km; Balearic Islands 187 km (including toll ways); Andorra 0 km;

Toll motorways
Catalonia: 631 km; Valencian Country 367 km; Balearic Islands 0 km; Andorra 2,8 km (Envalira Tunnel) (2012); Northern Catalonia: 53 km

Conventional rail
Catalonia: 1,900 km; Valencian Country: 891 km; Balearic Islands: 116.82 km; Andorra 0 km

High speed railways
Catalonia: 358 km; Valencian Country: some 100 km; Northern Catalonia: 24.6 km

160 km, corresponding to the stretch of the Ebro between Mequinensa and the mouth of the river

Trading ports (more than 1 million tons per year)
The Catalan Countries have a total of 6 trading ports that have a volume of more than 1 million tones per year: 2 in Catalonia (Barcelona and  Tarragona), 3 in the Valencian Country (Castelló, València and Alacant) and 1 in the Balearic Islands (Palma).



6. Education and culture

Educational attainment of the adult population (%; aged 25 and over):

No attainment at all 8.80%
Primary 24.30%
Lower secondary 25.60%
Upper secondary 25.50%
Tertiary 15.70%

Culture (expenditure per person / year)
Culture and communication: average €797.82 per household (€305.93 per person)
Books: €29
Press: €32
Cinema, theatre: €46
Museums, libraries, etc. €3
Other cultural goods or services Fees for radio and television licenses, cable and satellite networks subscription: €24


Other data (Catalonia)

Theatre shows: Catalan: 7,592; Spanish: 3,879; plurilingual: 712
Dance performances: 1,109
Books published: books & leaflets published in 2011: Catalan: 7,804, Spanish: 58,615; Other languages (Basque, Galician, French, English...): 7,825
Musical works published:
Films shown: in Catalan: 149 (2010)

7. Armed and police forces in its territory (Number of troops and police officers)

Catalonia: 1,700 army service personnel and 3,500 Civil Guard personnel (2012)
Andorra has no army, its defence being a responsibility of Spain and France

Naval commands in Catalonia (Barcelona and Tarragona) and in the Valencian Country (Castelló, València and Alacant); naval stations in the Balearic Islands (Porto Pi, Maó and Eivissa)  (2012)

Air force
Air bases in Catalonia (Roses, Gavà, el Prat), Balearic Islands (Sóller, Pollença, Palma) and the Valencian Country (Alcoi)

State police
Catalonia: 3,350 policemen and policewomen of the Spanish National Police Corps

National police
Catalonia: 15,905 policemen and policewomen of the Mossos d'Esquadra (Catalan national police)
Andorra: 231 policemen and policewomen of the Police National Corps
No national police in the Valencian Country, Balearic Islands and Northern Catalonia           

Local police
10,894 policemen and policewomen

8. Economy

Currency Euro (EUR)

GDP (in million €) 60,124
Andorra: €2,636 million (2010)
Catalonia: €200,323 million (2011) INE4 or €210,150 million (2011)
Valencian Country: €102,941 million (2011)
Balearic Islands: €26,859 million (2011)

Annual growth GDP  
Andorra: Over the 10 year period to 2011, average annual GDP growth rate was 3.7%
Catalonia: Over the 4 year period to 2011, average annual GDP growth rate was -0.88%
Valencian Country: Over the 4 year period to 2011, average annual GDP growth rate was -2.07%
Balearic Islands: Over the 4 year period to 2011, average annual GDP growth rate was -0.93%

GDP per capita (€)
Andorra: €31,006 (2010)
Catalonia: €27,430 (2011)
Valencian Country: €20,583 (2011)
Balearic Islands: €24,585(2011)

Composition of GDP
Andorra: 0.4%
Catalonia: 0.88%

Andorra: 14.8%
Catalonia: 28.49%

Andorra: 79.5%
Catalonia: 62.89%

Inflation rate
Andorra: one year variation (August 2011-August 2012) 1.2%
Catalonia: one year variation (October 2011-October 2012) 4.2%
Valencian Country: one year variation (October 2011-October 2012) 3.5%
Balearic Islands: one year variation (October 2011-October 2012) 3.7%

Unemployment rate  8.3%
Catalonia 23.94% (October-December 2012)
Valencian Country 28.10% (October-December 2012)
Balearic Islands 24.30% (October-December 2012)
Andorra 1.8% approx

Energy balance (thousands of TOE) and energy import coverage rate  - No data available

Energy production (thousands of TOE) No data available

Natural gas
Catalonia 0.0% (2007)

Petroleum products  
Catalonia 2.2% (2007)

Catalonia 1% (2007)

Catalonia 84.2% (2007)
Catalonia 11.4% (2007)


Energy consumption (thousands of TOE)
Natural gas
Andorra 0.98% (2011)
Catalonia 24.6% (2009)

Petroleum products  
Andorra: 56.03% (2011)
Catalonia 47.2% (2009)

Andorra 0.02% (2011)
Catalonia 0.6% (2009)

Andorra: no official figures for nuclear/renewables
Catalonia 20.1% (2009)

Andorra: no official figures for nuclear/renewables. Official data mention only “electricity”, which amounts to 42.97% (2011)
Catalonia 4.1% (2011)


Imports (million €)
Andorra: €1,149.2 million (2011)
Main suppliers
Andorra: Spain 60.7%, France 17.5%, Germany 4.3%, China 4.2%

Exports (million €) 
Andorra: €55.8 million (2011)
Catalonia: €136,697 millio (2011)

Main customers
Andorra: Spain 57.7%, France 24%, Switzerland 6.3%, Germany 3.5%
Catalonia: The rest of Spain is the main costumer (€64,384 million or 47.1%) while the rest of the world accounts for €72.313  million or 52.9%).

Trade balance (+ million €) and import coverage rate (%) No data available

9. National symbols


The senyera or quadribarrada is used as the national flag of the Catalan Countries. A number of variations (usually through the addition of coats of arms and / or strips) exist to represent several individual territories. The flag of Andorra is an exception to this.
The senyera with no additions is currently the official flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.




  Other flags based on it that are in official use are: the reial senyera or senyera coronada (Valencian Country)



and the Bandera de les Illes Balears (Balearic Islands)



Coat of arms

There is no single coat of arms in official use that represents the whole territory of the Catalan Countries. Instead, the government of the autonomous community of Catalonia has an official seal, while the governments of the Valencian Country and the Balearic Islands have an official coat of arms each. The Principality of Andorra also has its own coat of arms.





Balearic Islands







National anthem

There are four official anthems in use:

Catalonia: “Els segadors”

Catalunya triomfant,
tornarà a ser rica i plena.
Endarrere aquesta gent
tan ufana i tan superba.

Bon cop de falç!
Bon cop de falç, Defensors de la terra!
Bon cop de falç!

Ara és hora, segadors.
Ara és hora d'estar alerta.
Per quan vingui un altre juny
esmolem ben bé les eines.

Bon cop de falç!
Bon cop de falç, Defensors de la terra!
Bon cop de falç!

Que tremoli l'enemic
en veient la nostra ensenya.
Com fem caure espigues d'or,
quan convé seguem cadenes.

Bon cop de falç!
Bon cop de falç, Defensors de la terra!
Bon cop de falç!


Valencian Country:

The official anthem is “Himne de l'exposició”, but some sectors of Valencian nationalism consider it to be a Spanish oriented anthem and propose instead the “Muixeranga d'Algemesí” as the anthem of the Valencian Country or even as the national anthem of the Catalan Countries as a whole
Lyrics of the “Himne de l'exposició”:

Per a ofrenar noves glòries a Espanya,
tots a una veu, germans, vingau.
Ja en el taller i en el camp remoregen
càntics d'amor, himnes de pau!

Pas a la Regió que
avança en marxa triomfal!

Per a tu la Vega envia
la riquesa que atresora,
i és la veu de l'aigua càntic d'alegria
acordat al ritme de guitarra mora...

Paladins de l'Art t'ofrenen
ses victòries gegantines;
i als teus peus, Sultana, tos jardins estenen
un tapís de murta i de roses fines.

Brindes fruites daurades
els paradisos de les riberes;
pengen les arracades
baix les arcades de les palmeres...

Sona la veu amada
i en potentíssim vibrant ressò,
notes de nostra albada
canten les glòries de la Regió.

Valencians, en peu alcem-se.
Que nostra veu
la llum salude d'un sol novell.

Per a ofrenar noves glòries a Espanya,
tots a una veu, germans, vingau.
Ja en el taller i en el camp remoregen
càntics d'amor, himnes de pau!

Flamege en l'aire nostra Senyera!
Glòria a la Pàtria!
Visca València!
Visca! Visca!! Visca!!!


Balearic Islands:

No anthem in official use for the whole of the Balearic Islands.

“La Balanguera” is the official anthem of the island of Majorca.

La Balanguera misteriosa,
com una aranya d’art subtil,
buida que buida sa filosa,
de nostra vida treu el fil.
Com una parca bé cavil·la,
teixint la tela per demà
la balanguera fila, fila,
la balanguera filarà.

Girant la ullada cap enrera
guaita les ombres de l’avior,
i de la nova primavera
sap on s’amaga la llavor.
Sap que la soca més s’enfila
com més endins pot arrelar
la balanguera fila, fila,
la balanguera filarà.

De tradicions i d’esperances
tix la senyera pel jovent
com qui fa un vel de nuviances
amb cabelleres d’or i argent.
De la infantesa que s’enfila,
de la vellúria qui se’n va,
la balanguera fila, fila,
la balanguera filarà.



Andorra: “El gran Carlemany”

El gran Carlemany, mon pare,
dels alarbs me deslliurà,
i del cel vida em donà,
de Meritxell la gran Mare.

Princesa nasquí i pubilla
entre dos nacions, neutral;
sols resto l'única filla,
de l'imperi Carlemany.

Creient i lliure onze segles,
creient i lliure vull ser
siguin els furs mos tutors
i mos Prínceps defensors,
i mos Prínceps defensors!



National Day

Cataluña: 11 September
Valencia: 9 October
Baleares: 1 March
Andorra: 14 March


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