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Galicia

Name of the stateless nation: Galiza

State or states this nation belongs to: Kingdom of Spain

Galicia map

1. Physical and human environment

Geography

Area   29,575 km2

Altimetric zones (% of total surface)
Lower than 200 m   17%
201-600 m  52%
601-1,000 m  24%
1,001-2,000 m  7%
Higher than 2,000 m  0%

Biogeographical regions (% of total surface)
Atlantic  90%
Mediterranean 10%

Land use (% of total surface)
Inner waters and wetlands 0.5%
Forests and open spaces 61.1%
Agricultural land 34.5%
Urban and artificial areas 4%

 



Nation

Origins

The ancient Greeks called the inhabitants of the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula "Kallaikoi". Its mineral resources triggered the Roman invasion, and in the third century the space north of the Douro River became part of the Empire as the province of Gallaecia. After imperial decline a Central European town, the Swabians, set up the Kingdom of Galicia, which eventually saw its territory reduced (with the final separation of the county of Portugal in the twelfth century) as well as its autonomy, since it was dominated by the Asturian and Leonese monarchs. The defeat of the Irmandiño revolution (1465-1469), where peasants and burghers fought together against aristocratic and ecclesiastical abuses, meant submission to the crown of Castile. Galicia lost all capacity for political action and economic development, and public use of the language was persecuted. It was the beginning of the "dark ages".

In the nineteenth century, liberal uprisings against the absolutist monarchy unleashed fierce repression, which brought about the dissolution of the former Kingdom of Galicia as an administrative entity. Consequently early political demonstrations in defence of the rights of the Galician people emerged.

The Galician nationalist movement grew in the twentieth century until it gained several seats in the Parliament of the Spanish Second Republic.  This made possible the approval of a Statute of Autonomy, which was endorsed by referendum in 1936. The Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco dictatorship frustrated Galician aspirations which were replaced by repression and exile. After the death of the dictator and in the context of the Spanish democratic transition a new Statute of Autonomy of Galicia was approved in 1981. Since then, the electoral representation of political nationalism has oscillated between 10% and 25%.
Galician-Portuguese was the medieval language spoken in the north-western Iberian Peninsula which gave rise to the current Galician and Portuguese languages. The Way of St. James has been a cultural hub since the Middle Ages, spreading inter alia Romanesque art and the poetry of the troubadours. Galicia has a rich cultural heritage, both tangible (prehistoric art, Romanesque and Baroque architecture, etc) and intangible.

Galicia is a fishing power, but the automotive, energy and shipbuilding also define the productive structure of Galicia. Bold reforms of its industry were put in place in recent years, in which the textile sector, a significant audiovisual industry and high-tech industries play a very important role.

 

 

 

2 Government

Capital city
Santiago de Compostela

Name of President / Prime Minister / Other 
Alberto Núñez Feijóo (President)

Political status as part of the State 
Autonomous Community

Competences attributed / recognized by the State
Self-Government, Planning and Public Works, Culture, Education, Health, Welfare, Artistic and Historical Heritage, Public Administration, Industry, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry, Ports, Energy, Public Media. Political institutions Parliament (Parlamento de Galicia) with legislative capacity. Government of Galicia (Xunta de Galicia) High Court of Justice of Galicia (Tribunal Superior de Xustiza, supreme civil and criminal court) Galician ombudsman (Valedor do Pobo) Court of Accounts (Consello de Contas) Advisory Council (Consello Consultivo de Galicia)

External representation
Delegations of Xunta de Galicia in Buenos Aires (Argentina), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Madrid; Office of Fundación Galicia Europa in Brussels. Galicia is a member of the Committee of Regions of the European Union, as a part of the Spanish delegation.

Territorial and local organization (counties, provinces, districts, municipal bodies, etc.) 4 provinces and 315 municipalities.

Main Political Parties
Political parties having (or having had in the past) representatives at the national level

Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG, Bloque Nacionalista Galego): Galician nationalist party, left. People’s Party (PP, Partido Popular): Right, Spanish unionist Socialist Party (PSOE, Partido socialista obrero español): Centre-socialist, Spanish unionist. Galician Alternative Left (Alternativa Galega de Esquerdas: coalition between federalist left and nationalist left).

Nationwide political parties having (or having had in the past) representatives at the local level

Nationalist organizations of civil society
A Mesa pola Normalización Lingüística, Queremos Galego, ProLingua, Confederación Intersindical Galega, Sindicato Labrego Galego, Federación Rural Galega, Asociación para a Defensa Ecolóxica de Galiza, Liga Estudantil Galega, Comités, Asociación Escritores en Lingua Galega.

3.Population

Total population 2,795,422

Density  94.52/km2

Age structure
0-19  15.74%
20-64  61.74%
over 65 22.52%

Urban population  41.12%
In the capital city 5.35%
In other major cities 35.77%

Annual growth  -1.18‰

Net migration rate  1.72‰

Life expectancy
Men: 78.8 years
Women: 85.6 years

4. Languages

Spoken languages

Language areas (whether vernacular or not)
Galician is spoken throughout the territory and so is Castilian although this one is better established in urban areas.

Number and percentage of speakers of each vernacular language over the total population
Galician: 2,137,100 (76.45%)

Official languages and languages recognized by the authorities
In the territory of the nation
Galician and Castilian (both official)


Vernacular languages of the nation which are official in or recognized by the state
Galician is recognized by the State
National vernacular languages official or recognized outside the state (by other states and/or by international organizations)

 

Use of vernacular languages

In public administration
95% in Galician administration; 40% in State administration in Galicia

In justice
30%

In school
Both languages are used (50%)

In place names (toponymy)
100%

In cultural production (books, movies)
61.92%

In the media and the internet
8% internet, 61% television, 34% radio

Speakers of other languages
30,750

5. Transport infrastructure

Airports
Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña and Vigo

Roads
17,610 km

Dual carriageways
1,085 km

Toll motorways
327 km

Conventional rail
1,177 km

High speed railways
150 km

Waterways
4 km


Density of transport infrastructure
Roads and motorways      
643 km / 1000 km2
680 km / 100,000 inhabitants

Railways      
45 km / 1000 km2
49 km / 100,000 inhabitants


Trans-border connections (Number of trans-border connections for each kind of transport infrastructure / kilometres of border line)
Road: 57 / 610 = 1 every 11.95 km
Rail: 4 / 610 = 1 every 170.25 km


Trading ports (more than 1 million tons per year)
Ferrol, A Coruña, Vilagarcía, Marín and Vigo

6. Education and culture

Educational attainment of the adult population (%; aged 16 and over):
No attainment at all 0%
Primary 10%
Lower secondary 34%
Upper secondary 21%
Tertiary 35%

 

Culture (expenditure per person / year) €359.80

Books: €34.9

Press: €42,07

Cinema, theatre: €65,95

Museums, libraries, etc. €4.74

Other cultural goods or services €16.48

 

Other data

Theatre shows: 3,792

Dance performances: 307

Books published: 1,538

Musical works published: 6

 Films shown: 385

7. Armed and police forces in its territory (Number of troops and police officers)

Army 5,310
Navy 13
Airforce 1,195

State police 5,065
National police 161
Local police 1,733


8. Economy


Currency  Euro (EUR)

GDP (in million €) 34,098

Annual growth GDP   0.3%

GDP per capita (€)  25,920

Composition of GDP
Agriculture  3.53%
Industry  44.97%
Services  51.50%

Inflation rate  3.1%

Unemployment rate  18.75%

Energy balance (thousands of TOE) and energy import coverage rate  -3,968 (29.70%)

Energy production (thousands of TOE) 1,677

Natural gas  25.84%

Petroleum products  0.41%

Coal  18.25%

Nuclear  0%

Renewables  47.01%

Energy consumption (thousands of TOE) 5,6452

Natural gas  43.1%

Petroleum products  30.1%

Coal  8.1%

Nuclear  0%

Renewables  18.6%

 

Trade
Imports (mill €)  21,729.08

Exports (mill €)  21,346.02

Trade balance (+ mill €) and import coverage rate (%) -383.06 (98.24%)

 

FOREIGN TRADE


IMPORTS

Mill. €

%

EXPORTS

Mill. €

%

TOTAL

21,729.08

100

TOTAL

21,346.02

100

EU

20,098.64

92.50

EU

20,284.47

95.03

Spain

15,233.1

70.10

Spain

15,565.1

72.92

Catalonia

6,761.9

31.12

Catalonia

5,121

23.99

Basque Country

2,109.1

9.70

-

-

-

-

-

-

Castile and Leon

1,743.2

8.17

Navarre

1,148.6

5.29

Navarre

1,025.1

4.80

Madrid

1,131.7

5.21

Madrid

1,264.8

5.93

Valencia

998.7

4.60

Valencia

1,360.2

6.37

Rest of Spain

3,083.1

14.19

Rest of Spain

3,051.1

14.29

Germany

1,435.91

6.61

Germany

1,435.91

6.61

Poland

592.32

2.73

-

-

-

Italy

571.46

2.63

Italy

965.65

4.52

-

-

-

France

1,288.43

6.04

Europe (non-EU)

379.34

1.75

Europe (non-EU)

484.93

2.27

Asia

850,69

3.91

Asia

589.14

2.76

China

487,79

2,24

-

-

-

Turkey

223,94

1.03

Turkey

206.84

0.97

-

-

-

United Arab Emirates

121.73

0.57

Africa

290.69

1.34

Africa

235.53

1.10

Morocco

190.45

0.88

Morocco

61.13

0.29

South Africa

23,52

0.11

South Africa

36.46

0.17

America

99.94

0.46

America

289.92

1.36

USA

46.40

0.21

USA

84.49

0.39

Mexico

30.46

0.14

Mexico

44.19

0.21

Rest of the world

9.78

0.04

Rest of the world

37.96

0.18

9. National symbols

Flag



Galicia

The naval flag of the province of A Coruña was taken as their national flag by the Galician emigrants who departed from that port to America.

 

Coat of arms


Coat of Galice

Enclosed in a field of azure, a chalice of gold with a silver host, accompanied by seven silver crosses, representative of the seven historic provinces of Galicia.

 

 

National anthem

Que din os rumorosos
na costa verdecente,
ao raio transparente
do prácido luar?
Que din as altas copas
de escuro arume arpado
co seu ben compasado
monótono fungar?

Do teu verdor cinguido
e de benignos astros,
confín dos verdes castros
e valeroso chan,
non des a esquecemento
da inxuria o rudo encono;
esperta do teu sono
fogar de Breogán.

Os bos e xenerosos
a nosa voz entenden,
e con arroubo atenden
o noso ronco son,
mais só os iñorantes,
e féridos e duros,
imbéciles e escuros
non nos entenden, non.

Os tempos son chegados
dos bardos das idades,
que as vosas vaguedades
cumprido fin terán;
pois, onde quer, xigante
a nosa voz pregoa
a redenzón da boa

Nazón de Breogán.

 

ENGLISH VERSION

What do the murmuring say
in the greenish coast
to the transparent beam
of the placid moon place?
What do the high
dark pine needle jagged tops say
with its well compassed
measured grumble?

"With your girdled greenness
and with benign stars
limit of the green castroes
and courageous land,
don't give to oblivion
of outrage the hard effort;
wake up from your dream
home of Breogán.

"The good and generous
our voice understand,
and with determination they attend
our harsh sound,
but only the ignoramus,
and wounded and hard,
idiot and dark
don't understand us, they do not.

"The times are arrived
of Age Bards,
that your indeterminacies
end they will put down;
because where it wants, giant
our voice proclaims
the redemption of the good

Nation of Breogán".

 

 

National Day

25 Juliy

 

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Centre Maurits Coppieters

 

SNG